A is the absorbance of the

A0 is the absorbance of the control and is the absorbance of test sample respectively.
It has been found the absorbance peak of DPPH radical decreases with increasing concentration of antioxidant molecules (curcumin, QT and ascorbic acid). The effects of different antioxidants are shown in Fig. 8. (d) shows the effect of pure NEm on DPPH radical. It has been found that with increases in NEm concentration absorbance peak of radical enhances. This means NEm does not play any role in quenching the absorbance spectra of radicals. The free radical scavenging activity is determined by IC50[70].
From above experiment, IC50 of QT was calculated for curcumin and ascorbic channel modulator in NEm. The observed value was 28.88±1μM for QT, 45.53±2μM for curcumin and 51.51±2μM for ascorbic acid in NEm as shown in Fig. 9. Lower the IC50 value better is the free radical scavenging activity (antioxidant activity) [71]. In our cases QT acts as best antioxidant then curcumin and ascorbic acid. The IC50 value of QT, curcumin and ascorbic in NEm are shown in Table 5; the difference in IC50 was due to variation in solubility of drug.

Saponin stabilized NEm has been successfully prepared by sonication method. The incorporation of QT in NEm has been reported to have significantly affected their degradation, solubilization, loading and release properties. The prepared formulation was stable at room temperate for 45days exhibiting mean particle diameter of 52±10nm and zeta value of −41±8mV. The system was found to be stable in salt solution and in PBS. The variation of oil concentration experiment has shown that a stable NEm having diameter less than 100nm was prepared by mixing of two oils (corn oil and lemon oil). The interaction of QT with bile salts (sodium cholate and sodium taurocholate) was successfully studied in aqueous medium (NEm). Sodium cholate shows strong affinity towards QT. UV light degradation study has established that degradation of QT is prevented by trapping in NEm. Free radical scavenging activity (antioxidant activity) has shown that QT acts as best antioxidant in polar medium (NEm).


In the past few decades, nanostructured materials have attracted extraordinary research interest due to their fundamental significance for addressing some basic issues of the quantum confinement effect and space-confined transport phenomena, as well as their potential applications as advanced materials with collective properties [1]. The properties of nanocrystals depend not only on their chemical composition but also on their structure, phase, shape, size and size distribution. Moreover, the architectural control of nanosized materials with well-defined shapes is important for the success of “bottom-up” approaches in fabricating nanodevices [2]. Till today, many methods, such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD) [3], arc discharge [4], laser ablation [5], thermal evaporation [6], electrochemistry [7], wet-chemistry [8], microemulsion [9], microwave-assisted synthesis [10] and templates [11], etc., have been developed to fabricate various nanomaterials. So far, a variety of nanoscaled functional inorganic, organic or inorganic–organic composite materials with different morphologies, such as nanowires [11], nanorods [12], nanotubes [13], nanobelts [14], nanosheets [15], nanowhiskers [16], nanodenrides [17], nano-combs [18], nanofeathers [19], and so on, have been prepared. However, it is still a challenge for chemists and material scientists to find some convenient, economical, less energy consuming and environmental friendly routes to fabricate nanocrystals with different morphologies by the controlling the reaction conditions.
Among the family of inorganic compounds, calcium sulfate (CaSO4) is of vital importance, due to some of its key properties such as workability, fast setting time, and high strength [20]. In the natural state, unrefined calcium sulfate is a translucent, crystalline white rock. It exists in three different forms such as calcium sulfate dehydrate (gypsum) (CaSO4·2H2O), calcium sulfate hemihydrate (plaster of paris) (CaSO4·0.5H2O) and calcium sulfate anhydrite (β-CaSO4). This mineral is applied widely as fillers in the areas of plastics, rubbers, paints, paper making, textiles, pigments, ceramics, medicine, pharmacy; etc. due to its different physiochemical properties and technological applications [21–24]. Especially, calcium sulfate hemihydrate have potential orthopedic applications, such as bone cement, bone graft substitutes, and scaffolds for delivering growth factors for osseous regeneration [23–25]. Since, the performance of calcium sulfate in these applications is linked with the crystal size and morphology, it is necessary to control its size and shape as a primary objective [26–30].