chemokine receptor antagonist Some neuro structural differences have been suggested

Some neuro-structural differences have been suggested in men with erectile problems. Differences in white matter tracts in the splenium of the chemokine receptor antagonist in patients with erectile problems have been noted, which the authors interpreted as likely problems in the communication of sensory information and conduction of visual signals [31]. Others have investigated gray matter. Of seven subcortical structures investigated, the nucleus accumbens specifically was smaller in men reporting erectile problems [32]. This finding is particularly interesting in light of a very recent publication associating the hours of VSS viewing per week with a smaller ventral striatum [19]. The latter acknowledged an association between the amount of VSS consumed with depression and alcohol consumption, which were not controlled and might provide an alternative interpretation of the results. Whereas fMRI studies are more suggestive of active inhibition contributing to erectile problems, neuro-structural studies point a bit more toward reward sensitivity problems. These are hardly completely separable processes, and either could be sufficient to link VSS use and erectile problems.

Aims

Methods

Main Outcome Measures
Hours of VSS viewing per week were expected to be strongly positively skewed (cp. Kühn and Gallinat [19]) and were in these data as well. Transformations were not sufficient to support a Gaussian distribution, so data were binned. These bins represented watching 0 (n = 25), up to 2 (n = 56), or more than 2 (n = 55) hours of VSS in the average week.
The amount of VSS viewed during the week was used to predict the level of sexual arousal reported in response to the VSS in the laboratory using a Kruskal–Wallis test. (Correlations are included for interested readers.) Analyses on the IIEF were conducted in several ways. First, analyses were conducted on the full sample with IIEF scores (n = 133). Then analyses were conducted including only the participants who reported being currently in a sexual relationship (n = 59). This is a notable challenge of research in this area, as men are likely to increase their VSS use when a partner is not available. Many have mentioned the need to characterize the impact of relationship status on VSS use [55]. To partially address this challenge, hours of VSS consumed in the average week were also used to predict the level of sexual desire reported for sex with a partner. While a less direct test, the desire for partnered sex is not dependent on the availability of a sexual partner like current erectile function.

Results

Conclusions
Data from a large sample of men (N = 280) across similar studies were aggregated to test the hypothesis that consuming more VSS was related to erectile problems. These men answered questions about their sexual behaviors and feelings, including their consumption of VSS, and viewed sexual films in the laboratory. Those who reported viewing more VSS in their own life reported higher sexual arousal to films in the laboratory. Self-reported erectile functioning with a partner was not related to the hours of VSS viewed weekly. Finally, those who viewed VSS more also reported higher desire for both partnered sexual behaviors and solo sexual behaviors. This pattern suggests that those who view more VSS likely have a higher sexual drive and experience a stronger sexual response to standardized VSS than those who view less VSS. Sexual arousal responsivity may not be impaired by viewing more VSS at home, as it actually was related to stronger desire and sexual arousal in two of the three relationships tested.
Greater time spent viewing VSS has been related to many negative mental health outcomes [56], so the mechanism for VSS to promote positive outcomes is unclear. One explanation may be that those who view more VSS report more positive sexual attitudes in general [56]. Also, consumers tend to view VSS that they find sexually arousing [57], contributing to ego-syntonic, positive affect. In the laboratory, VSS tend to promote both positive and negative feelings, although feelings are generally strongly skewed toward more positive feelings [58], including in hypersexuals [35]. In other words, it may be the case that VSS viewing promotes both positive and negative feelings and outcomes. Many studies simply do not ask about positive effects, which may contribute to poor identification of the possible benefits of VSS use. These data further suggest that the relationship of VSS with higher sexual drive might explain why viewing VSS appears to relate positively with self-reported sexual arousal. The ultimate impact of these mixed states might be determined by individual predispositions.