Introduction Recently however a number

Recently however, a number of works have critically assessed both positions. The first critical reviews of research on adult children of alcoholics were the work of Woodside [1] and Giglio and Kaufman [2]. Especially that of Giglio and Kaufman was characterised by critical assessment of literature on ACoA since 1960. The next publication was Windle and Sealers Children of Alcoholics: Critical Perspectives[3] from 1991. That year also saw the publication of Shera\’s Children of Alcoholics. A Critical Appraisal of Theory and Research[4], which to this day is an important source on the subject of the children of alcoholics. These reviews were apparently a reply to Adult Children of Alcoholics by Woititz [5] as well as the positions of other clinicians and therapists accepting the specific character of ACoA syndrome. A wide and insightful review of the literature on the adult children of alcoholics was also carried out by Harter, who analysed the publications since 1987 [6]. She indicated further research directions and posed important questions as to whether the promotion of ACoA syndrome serves therapeutic purposes or rather creates iatrogenic problems by suggesting all have disturbances as a result of childhood experiences. It is also worth mentioning the ACoA research review published by Hall and Webster from 2007 [7], the undeniable value of which is the focus on the analysis of risk factors and durability, and not only on threats.
The first synthesising overview of ACoA literature and research in Polish was presented in the work of Ślaski [8, 9] and Cierpiałkowska [10, 11], who for many years has been conducting thorough and insightful analysis on this group [12–15]. Gąsior [16] has published an overview of work on the subject of ACoA, and other authors systematically addressing this material are Sobolewska-Mellibruda [17], Margasiński [18, 19], Grzegorzewska [20–22] and Chodkiewicz [23, 24].
The majority of the above mentioned authors accept that the ADA group is highly diverse. It includes those with serious mental disorders, minor adaptive difficulties and also those who function above the norm [6, 7, 11, 16]. This is probably the result of many factors that may both threaten and protect. No doubt this is linked to the variety of ACoA experiences arising from the differing functioning of the MLN8237 in which they were raised.

Families with dependence related problems
The well-known family therapists, Irene and Herbert Goldenberg [25], report that families with dependency problems are one of the most thoroughly researched in family therapy. At first, mainly therapists and clinicians conducted research on the functioning of these families. However, the concepts they created were not fully verified empirically. What is more, a peculiar kind of gap opened up between therapeutic practice and the science. Therapists tended to generalise their models of family functioning basing mainly on families in therapy. Their observations would be extended to all other families with dependency issues. On the other hand, scientists, especially in the 60s and 70s, sought a specific family dynamic pattern supposed to determine the occurrence of specific forms of pathology. These basically deterministic assumptions turned out to be at odds with the basic principles of systematic thinking. This had, after all, moved beyond deterministic and linear towards circular logic models. As Józefik [26] noted, there had been a paradigm shift in the field of family therapy and systemic thinking. Earlier models of family functioning are treated as only one of many possible ways of understanding family reality. Their ascribed objectivity is suspended, as therapists and researchers now consider how to comprehend a family and how to help it through dialogue. Steinglass\’s [27, 28] or Wegscheider-Cruse\’s [29, 30] systemic concepts of so-called alcoholic families belong to a passing paradigm, which does not mean the knowledge behind it is passé. However, it only sheds light on the course of development and functioning of some families coping with the problem of dependency [31]. The latest research on the functioning and durability of families in the face of misfortune indicates significant variation in the paths of their developmental [16, 32]. An understanding of the modern family with dependence related problems requires not only a grasp of risk factors but an understanding of the protective ones as well. A family (even an “alcoholic” one) is not exclusively a homeostatic closed system. It has its resilience and is subject to the cultural and social environmental influence in which it exists. The influence of the family environment on children is exceptionally diverse, as is the heritage passed on to the next generation.