The combination of colors In single

The combination of colors. In single-pass CCD scanners the color of the falling light is registered by three photodetecting linear arrays that cannot be absolutely identical due to technological variance and therefore may render a distorted image.

Analysis of scanned images
The scanner breaks the image into separate points, i.e. pixels, the number and the linear dimensions of which depend on the optical resolution of the scanner (see Table 1). Each pixel has its own color “passport”, i.e. its coordinates in RGB-space. For example, the record (185, 17, 110) means that the pixel is displayed in red with an intensity of 185, green with an intensity of 17, and blue with an intensity of 110. The computer receives these pixels with their “passports” and stores the information about them in its memory.
The scanner allows to record and analyze 104–107 independent reference points in one dimension from every square centimeter of an A4 surface (see Table 1). This is where the scanner significantly differs from systems with one-dimensional signal recording (i.e. a scanning electron microscope, a scanning tunneling microscope, an atomic force microscope, etc.). Such scanning systems have better geometric resolution but are far behind the flatbed scanners in speed and in size of the analyzed area [8].
Keeping in mind the above-mentioned features of CCD and LIDE scanners, both may be used in a physics experiment depending on the experiment objectives. In order not to distort the resulting images, the internal scanner settings should not be used and images should not be saved in JPG format as much of the valuable information is lost. Following formats could be used: TIFF, BMP, PND or RAW formats may be used [9].

Examples of method implementation

Fig. 5 is a bar graph of the intensity distribution of light scattered from a sapphire plate in a linear and a logarithmic scale. The logarithmic scale allows to see the inhomogeneities in plate polishing which are not visible on the linear histogram. The main peak of the histogram corresponds to the GS-9973 Supplier plate relief; the half-width of the maximum variation reflects the relative roughness, and the almost exponential decline to the right of the RR maximum corresponds to the rough plate surface topography, which indicates that the plate has been under-polished on the previous stage of its processing.
Fig. 6 shows the surface topography of the optical window of calcium fluoride CaF2, produced by the scanner before and after the finishing polish. Interference fringes (Newton\’s rings) reveal uneven terrain. After the finishing polish the plate shows Newton rings equally spaced, which indicates there are no peaks and valleys, and a small curvature of the rings indicates a small taper surface.
Fig. 7 demonstrates the capabilities of the scanner in determining the polytype of silicon carbide crystals obtained by the Lely technology. Sample I from the set of cubic 3C-SiC crystals turned out to be a hexagonal 6H-SiC polytype. The intensity of light scattering from samples of silicon carbide in the red () and blue () wavelengths are plotted along the axes of the graph.
Fig. 8 shows the calibration dependences for determining the roughness of the quartz and glass plates from the scanned data. Quantitative calibration by roughness value is made through profilometer measurements. The points in the graphs correspond to the experimental data obtained using a scanner, the solid curves to the theoretical approximation.
A detailed description of the techniques using a flatbed scanner to obtain the results shown in Figs. 5–8 is planned for future papers.

Currently, the following techniques have been developed in laboratory conditions:


In an MCN detector such a low detected power allowed:

There has been a general trend in recent years to increase the operating current and the chip area of the commercial high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in order to provide more and more values of their output optical power. In particular, high-power CBT-140-W LEDs by Luminus, Inc. have the chip area of 14 mm2 and the operating current up to 21 A, corresponding to the total heat dissipation power of ∼76 W and the heat release density more than 500 W/cm2. In addition to the rise of the output optical power, engineers complicate the contact electrode geometry to avoid the shading effect. The flip-chip mounting on a heat sink followed by the removal of the substrate (made of sapphire as a rule) after the growth of the LED structure is widely used [1,2]. This increasing design sophistication requires paying more attention to the thermal management of LEDs operation, which should include not only evaluating the total chip thermal resistance, but thoroughly analyzing the temperature distribution over the chip area as well. In other words, temperature mapping is required.